Hargrave Specific
General Aviation History
General Reference
Aeronautical Annual, The
Kiting, Gliding etc.
Study of Bird and Insect Flight


Hargrave Specific


Hargrave Specific
General Aviation History
Kiting, Gliding etc.
Study of Bird and Insect Flight


Wright Flyer


Hargrave Specific

All sites listed below were active on February 17, 2002. Please report any broken links - suggestions for additional links are also most welcome.


Hargrave Specific


Craddock, D. A., 1994, Ravensbourne to Airborne. Aspects of Lawrence Hargrave's contribution to the science of aeronautics. Epping: David A. Craddock

Craddock, D. A., 1998?, Construction Drawings for a Selection of Kites. Epping: David A. Craddock

Grainger, Elena, 1978, Hargrave and Son. A biography of John Fletcher Hargrave and his son Lawrence Hargrave, University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Qld. Australia, ISBN 0 7022 1077 3

Inglis, A., Trials of an inventor in News South Wales: the case of Lawrence Hargrave [details to be researched]

McDonald, W. G., (date?), Lawrence Hargrave of Stanwell Park: a sketch of his life and work, ASIN: 0 9598 8116 6

Roughley, T.C., 1937, The Aeronautical work of Lawrence Hargrave, Government Printer, Sydney, Australia

Shaw, W. Hudson and Ruhen, Olaf, 1977, Lawrence Hargrave: Explorer, Inventor & Aviation Experimenter, Cassell Australia Ltd., Sydney, Australia, ISBN: 0 7269 3708 8

Walker, J., D., 1984, Lawrence Hargrave: Australia's Pioneer Aeronautical Scientist, Australian Government Publishing Service Commonwealth of Australia, ISBN 0 644 03301 0

...also related to Hargrave's Explorations in New Guinea with Luigi Maria D'Albertis

Goode, John, 1977, Rape of the Fly. Explorations in New Guinea.; The adventures of Luigi Maria D'Albertis and Lawrence Hargrave in their exploration of the Fly River, Nelson, Melbourne, Australia


General Aviation History


Bacon, The Reverend J.M., Dominion of the Air, The: The Story of Aerial Navigation - [full text]

Carroll, Brian 1980, Australian Aviators: An Illustrated History, Cassell Australia, ISBN 0 7269 1399 5

Chanute, Octave, 1894, Progress in Flying Machines - [full text]

Claxton William J., Mastery of the Air, The - [full text]

Copley, Greg (Gregory R.,), 1976, Australians in the Air, Rigby Ltd., Australia, ISBN 0 7270 0139 6

Fairlie, Cayley and Gerard Elizabeth, 1965, The Life of Genius Sir George Cayley Pioneer of Modern Aviation ; Hodder & Stoughton, London

Fergusson James, 1972, Balloon Tytler. Biography of British Aeronaut James Tytler (1745-1804) who made the first manned balloon ascent in Scotland. pub. London, Faber 1972

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1943, Ballooning ; London: King Penguin

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1953, A History of Flying ; Batsford, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1956, Balloons, Ariel Press

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1960, The Aeroplane, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1966, A Directory and Nomenclature of the First Aeroplanes 1809 to 1909, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1966, The Invention of the Aeroplane, 1799-1909, Faber & Faber, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1968, Clement Ader. His Flight-Claims and his Place in History, Faber & Faber, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1969, The Wright Brothers: A Brief Account of Their Work 1899-1911. pub. London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1970, Aviation. An historical survey from its origins to the end of World War II. pub. London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office

Gibbs-Smith, C. H., 1974, The Rebirth of European Aviation 1902-1908. A Study of the Wright Brothers' Influence, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK

Gibbs-Smith, H C., 1974, Flight through the Ages: A complete, illustrated chronology from the dreams of early history to the age of space exploration, Hart Davis MacGibbon, London, UK., SBN 0 246 10849 5

Gibbs-Smith C.H., 1976, Early Flying Machines: 1799-1909, Book Club Associates

Haining, Peter, 1972, The Dream Machines. An eyewitness history of Ballooning. pub. Lond. New English Library

Hart, Clive, 1985, The Prehistory of Flight

Jarrett, P. ,1987, Another Icarus: Percy Pilcher and the Quest for Flight, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA

Langley, Samuel P., 1895, Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight - [full text]

Marion F., Wonderful Balloon Ascents: Or, The Conquest of the Skies

Miller H.C. 1968, Early Birds. Author's early experiences in Australia and Britain before the first World War. pub. Adelaide, Rigby

Nordbok, A., B., 1984, The Story of Flight, Chancellor Press (orig. published in 1977 as "The Lore of Flight"), ISBN 0 907486 71 1

Pritchard, J. Laurence, 1961, Sir George Cayley: Inventor of the Aeroplane, Parrish, London

Russell, Thomas H., and Jackman W. J., Flying Machine: Construction and Operation - [full text]

Talbot, Frederick A. Aeroplanes and Dirigibles of War - [full text]

Taylor, Michael and Mondey, David, 1970, Guinness Book of Aircraft Facts & Feats, (reprinted 1973, 1977, 1984, 1985), Guinness Superlatives Ltd. London, UK, ISBN 0 85112 406 2

Vivian, E. Charles, History of Aeronautics, A - [full text]

Whale, George, British Airships: Past, Present and Future - [full text]


General Reference


Bateman, David Pty Ltd (eds.), 1988, The Australian Encyclopedia, 5th Ed., (originally printed 1925-6), Australian Geographic Society, Terry Hills, NSW, Australia, ISBN 1 86276 001 2 (deluxe set)

Nairn, Bede and Serle, Geoffrey (eds.), 1983, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 9, 1891-1939, pp. 196-98, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, ISBN 0 522 84273 9


The Aeronautical Annual

Published by the Royal Aeronautical Society of Great Britain




Da Vinci, Leonardo, Treatise upon the Flight of Birds [orig c.1500, this extract c.1893, 1895]

Wenham, F. H. , Esq., Aerial Locomotion [first published 1866] - [full text]




Kiting, Gliding etc.


Hart, Clive, 1967, Kites: An Historical Survey, Faber and Faber Ltd., London, UK.

Pelham, David, 1976, The Penguin Book of Kites, Penguin Books, London, UK., ISBN 0 14 004117 6

Wagenvoord, James, 1968, Flying Kites, In Fun, Art, and War


Study of Bird and Insect Flight


Brackenbury, J. Insects in Flight

Dalton Stephen, 1977, The Miracle of Flight, Mc Graw Hill

Nachtigall, W. Insects in Flight


Between August 1884 and December 1909 Lawrence Hargrave read several dozen papers and presented a number of mechanical/aeronautical devices before the Royal Society of New South Wales. The papers, often profusely illustrated, were subsequentially published in the Society's Journal of Proceedings

The papers listed below, are linked to scans of the original journals from the archives of the Hargrave Library at Monash University or, in some cases, transcripts on the Australian Kite Association website.

The papers presented here deal specifically with Hargrave's work in aviation. Some half dozen papers relating to his work in non-aviation engineering and archeological research are not included as they are outside the brief of this website.

The posting of these papers on the web is a large task involving the careful scanning of documents in most cases over 100 years old, the digital repairing of defects and finally the scripting of pages to hold the scans.

Initially the focus will be on the latter period of his work. Please scroll down to view those currently available. The presentation date is in boldface, volume and page numbers where currently unknown, are represented by Volume 00, pp. 000-00


August 6, 1884 Volume 18, pp. 61-72
Paper: The Trochoided Plane

October, 1884 Volume 18, pp. 000-00
Device: 'Clockwork flapper on rotating Arm'

June 3, 1885 Volume 19, pp. 000-00
Paper: Notes on flying-machines

December 2, 1885 Volume 19, pp. 000-00
Paper: On a form of flying-machine

October 6, 1886 Volume 20, pp. 000-00
Device: clockwork flapper flying-machine

June 1, 1887 Volume 21, pp. 000-00
Paper: Recent work on flying-machines

December 7, 1887 Volume 21, pp. 000-00
Paper: Autographic Instruments used in the development of flying-machines

May 2, 1888 Volume 22, pp. 000-00
Device: Engine No. 1? , compressed-air, weight 2.5 lb

August 7, 1889 Volume 23, pp. 000-00
Paper: Flying-machine Memoranda

June 4, 1890 Volume 24, pp. 52-58: 3 folded leaves of plates. : ill.
Paper: On a compressed-air flying-machine

December 3, 1890 Volume 24, pp. 253-256. : 4 folded leaves of plates. : ill.
Paper: On the 74 oz Compressed-air flying-machine

July 1, 1891 Volume 25, pp. 52-58: . 10 folded leaves of plates. : ill.
Paper: Compressed-air flying-machines Nos. 13 and 14

August 3, 1892 Volume 26, pp. 000-00
Paper: Flying-machine work
Device: 1/6 I.H.P.steam motor weighing 3 1/4 lb

June 7, 1893 Volume 27, pp. 73-81:. 4 leaves of plates. : ill.
Paper: Flying machine motors and cellular kites

June 5, 1895 Volume 29, pp. 40-47
Paper: Paper on aeronautical work

August 5, 1896 Volume 30, pp. 144-47:. 4 p., 1 folded leaf of plates. : ill.
Paper: On the cellular kite

September 1, 1897 Volume 31(30?), pp. 207-13
Paper: The Possibility of Soaring in a Horizontal Wind

June 1, 1898 Volume 32, pp. 55-65
Paper: Aeronautics
Device: Engine No. 25?

November 2, 1898 Volume 32, pp. 209-22
Paper: Soaring Machines

September 6, 1899 Volume 33, pp. 000-00
Paper: Sailing birds are dependent on wave-power - Original Paper

July 1, 1901 Volume 35, pp. 000-00
Device: Engine No. 29 and Boiler.

December 1, 1909 Volume 43, pp. 381-87
Paper: Rigid stable aeroplanes
Device: Kite No. 99 with a pendulum balance


Hargrave Specific


Hargrave, L, 1893, Cellular Kites
Engineering Vol 56, [Oct 27], pp. 523-24

Hargrave, L, 1895, Experiments on Kites
Engineering Vol 59, [Feb 15], p. 221


General Aviation History


Cayley, George, On Aerial Navigation
Nicholson's Journal, November, 1809; February, March 1810 - [full text]

Chanute, Octave, Experiments in Flying
McClure's Magazine, June, 1900 - [full text]

Langley's Aerodrome Experiments
Scientific American, August 22, 1903 - [full text]

Experiments with Motor-Driven Aeroplanes by Gustav Whitehead
Scientific American, September 19, 1903 - [full text]

The Failure of Langley's Aerodrome
Scientific American, October 17, 1903 [images yet to come] - [full text]

The British Army Aeroplane
Scientific American, January 30, 1909 [images yet to come] - [full text]


Kiting, Gliding etc.


Eddy W. A., 1897, Photographing from Kites
The Century (Magazine) Volume 54, pp. 86-91

Millett, J. B., 1897, Scientific Kite Flying
The Century (Magazine) Volume 54, pp. 66-77

Wise, H, D., 1897, Kite Experiments
The Century (Magazine) Volume 54, pp. 78-86

These three landmark articles are now online at this site




Much of this bibliography was found at the site Articles concerned with flapping by Kazuho Kawai

Betteridge, D. S. and Archer, R. D., A Study of the Mechanics of Flapping Wings, Aeronaut Quarterly, 1974, pp.129-142

Blackwell, J. and Archer, R. D., Performance Characteristics of Simple Flapping Motion with Application to the Cruising Flight of Birds, University of New Wouth Wales Report, 1985/FMT/1, ISSN 0156 3068

Dahlin, K., A Quest for Flapping Wings, University of Toronto Magazine, Summer1989, pp.12-13

DeLaurier, J. D. and Harris, J. M., Experimental Study of Oscillating-Wing Propulsion., AIAA Paper 82-4107, May 1982

DeLaurier's Ornithopter

DeLaurier, J. D., An Aerodynamic Model for Flapping-Wing Flight, Aeronautical Journal, 1993, pp.125-130

Holst, E. von and Kuchemann, E., Biological and Aerodynamical Problems of Animal Flight, Royal Aeronautical Society Journal, vol. 46

Kuchemann, E. and Holst, E. von, Aerodynamics of Animal Flight, Luftwissen, vol.8, 1941, pp.277-282, Translated by L. J. Baker for the Ministry of Aircraft Production, R.T.P. Translation No. 1672

Lilienthal, Otto., Bird Flight as the Basis of Aviation, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1911

Lippisch, A. M., Man Powered Flight in 1929, Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, vol.64, July 1960, pp.395-398

Norberg, U. M., Evolution of Vertebrate Flight; An Aerodynamic Model for the Transition from Gliding to Active Flight, Amateur Naturalist, vol.126, 1985, pp,303-327

Rayner J., Vertebrate Flapping Flight Mechanics and Aerodynamics, and the Evolution of Flight in Bats, Biona-Report 5, Vustav Fischer, Stuttgart, 1986, pp.27-74

Schoenky, P., Ornithopters, 1951-52 model Aeronautic Year Book, Zaic, F. (ed) Model Aeronautic Publications, New York, 1952, pp.188-190

Vasilev, G. S., Principles of Flight of Models with Flapping Wings, Gosudarstvaennoye Izdatel'stovo Oboronnoy Promoyshlennosti, Moscow, 1953, Translation Ad107173

Walker, G. T., The Flapping Flight of Birds, Royal Aeronautical Society Journal, vol. 29, 1927, pp590-594, vol. 31 pp.337-342

Wilkie D. R., The Work Output of Animals: flight by birds and by manpower, Nature, vol.183, 1959, pp.1515-1516


Study of Bird and Insect Flight


Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I., and Furuta, T., 1985, Flight Mechanics of a Dragonfly, Journal of Experimental Biology, v116 p.79

Marden, J. 1994, Editorial Review, From Damselflies to Pterosaurs: How burst and sustainable flight scale with size, American Journal of Physiology. v266 #2: R1077



O. & W. Wright. Flying Machine. Application Filed March 23, 1903 - [full text]


Hargrave Specific


State Library of New South Wales - Dixson Library

Date range: 1910 - 1914

three original letters and copies of other correspondence including correspondence with G.A. Collingridge 1910-13 [MS Q236]. Material dealing with "Lope de Vega" 1914 [MS Q216].

Access: Available for reference

State Library of Victoria - La Trobe Library, Australian Manuscripts Collection

Date range: 1866 - 1915

Various records 1866-1915 [AJCP six reels positive microfilm M367-372], list available.

Access: Available for reference

State Library of New South Wales - Mitchell Library

Date range: 1865 - 1910

Microfilm of records 1866-1915 including letters, notes, memoranda and drawings, and printed material mostly journal articles and newspaper cuttings from originals held by the Powerhouse Museum [six reels, AJCP M367-372].

Manuscripts including pamphlets, press-cuttings, journal articles and other printed material relating to aeronautics [four volumes].

Official correspondence of the Premier's Department of NSW 1909, relating to accommodation for Hargrave's models; material relating to his work on "Lope de Vega" and the Spanish discovery of Port Jackson in 1595 [ML MSS 299 and ML MSS 3119].

Contents include: microform; photographs.

Access: Available for reference

National Library of Australia - Manuscript Section

Date range: 1908 - 1915

Small collection of original materials by or concerned with Hargrave including lectures, pamphlets and family photographs 1908-15 including material collected for a book on Lope de Vega; correspondence; sketches and photographs of rock carvings from the Sydney area; maps; publications and lantern slides [75 cm, MS 352].

Microfilm of records 1866-1915 including letters, notes, memoranda and drawings, and printed material mostly journal articles and newspaper cuttings from originals held by the Powerhouse Museum [six reels, AJCP M367-372].

Access: Available for reference

in addition, another reference details more fully the contents of the reels...


1) Notebooks with indexes, containing letters, diagrams, calculations, photographs, cuttings, and articles, mainly on Hargraves's aeronautical work. Arranged chronologically in the following sequence: 1870-Mar. 1890, reel M371; Mar. 1890-July 1892, reel M372; Aug. 1892-1898, reel M367; 1898-1904, reel M369; 1904-09, reel M368; 1909-13, last portion of reel M370; 1913-15, first portion of reel M371.

2) Correspondence 1866-91, cuttings and notes, re journeys undertaken by Hargrave, including one as a member of the New Guinea Expedition, formed to prospect for gold. Includes dealings with the N.S.W. branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. All the material on exploration in to be found on reel M370.

3) Cuttings, notes, calculations and correspondence 1878-83 re astronomy, including Hargrave's work at the Sydney Observatory, and correspondence with H.C. Russell, are included on reel M370.

Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences

Date range: 1866 - 1915

Private papers covering Hargrave's expedition to New Guinea 1872-77, his work as assistant astronomical observer at the Sydney Observatory 1878-83, and his research into human flight; the collection is made up of 12 notebooks and includes correspondence, press-cuttings, printed material, drawings, diagrams, memoranda and experimental notes and covers the dates 1866-1915 [P2756, P3174 and P3321].

The collection also exists as a microfilm copy in the National Library of Australia, Canberra.

Access: Available for reference


© Copyright 1999 CTIE - All Rights Reserved - Caution
Created and maintained by
Last updated February 2, 2003